Создана новая проточная батарея, в которой используются органические вещества, растворенные в нейтральной воде

В настоящее время доля электрической энергии, получаемой из возобновляемых источников, таких, как энергия солнечных лучей и энергия ветра, увеличивается буквально с каждым днем. Однако, в отличие от традиционных источников, альтернативные источники энергии не отличаются постоянством, количество отдаваемой ими энергии зависит от времени года, метеорологических условий и даже от времени суток. Именно поэтому альтернативные энергетические системы нуждаются в промежуточных устройствах хранения энергии, которые накапливают ее избытки в моменты максимальной мощности работы электростанций и отдают ее потребителям в часы пикового потребления.

Одним из перспективных видов устройств промежуточного хранения энергии являются проточные аккумуляторные батареи, которые сохраняют энергию в виде химической энергии соединений, растворенных в жидком электролите. Электрическая емкость таких батарей зависит только от объема баков для хранения «заряженного» электролита, однако, во всех подобных батареях, созданных ранее, использовались достаточно сложные и дорогостоящие химикаты, а элементы конструкции таких батарей должны были иметь защиту от химически агрессивной среды в их рабочей области. И недавно, ученым из Гарвардского университета удалось найти решение сразу обеих проблем, упомянутых выше. В созданной ими проточной аккумуляторной батарее используются только органические вещества, растворенные в обычной нейтральной воде.

Следует отметить, что гарвардские ученые работают над проблемой проточных батарей уже достаточно долго. В традиционных конструкциях подобных батарей используются электролитические жидкости на основе соединений ванадия и брома, растворенных в кислой среде. Все это опасно, сложно и дорого, кроме этого, такие батареи теряют часть своей емкости с увеличением количества циклов заряда-разрядки. Первым шагом к решению данной проблемы стала замена соединений ванадия абсолютно безвредным органическим соединением хиноном. А еще через год, в 2015 году, исследователи заменили соединения брома ферроцианидом, веществом, которое используется в пищевых добавках. Такие замены привели к изменению pH-фактора растворов электролита с кислотного на щелочной и это дало возможность использовать в батарее баки и трубопроводы, изготовленные из относительно недорогого пластика.

И последним шагом, сделанным учеными, стала батарея, в которой используются водные растворы молекул виологена (viologen) и ферроцена (ferrocene), которые представляют собой отрицательный и положительный электролит батареи соответственно. Для того, чтобы эти молекулы смогли работать в качестве основ электролита, ученым, путем структурных изменений этих молекул, пришлось сделать их растворимыми в воде и обеспечить и стойкость к деградации. И в результате получилось то, что проточная батарея на основе таких электролитов, теряет всего около процента емкости за 1000 циклов заряда-разрядки.

Весьма длительный срок эксплуатации батареи нового типа обусловлен не только стойкостью растворов-электролитов. Нейтральный pH-фактор растворов позволил изготовить из более простого и более надежного материала разделительную мембрану батареи, которой не стало необходимым выдерживать влияние агрессивных химических реакций на границе, ею же и создаваемой. «В других проточных батареях стоимость ионной мембраны из фторосодержащих полимеров составляет около трети от суммарной стоимости батареи, поэтому мы сейчас не можем даже приблизительно оценить снижение затрат при производстве новых батарей» — пишут исследователи, — «Мембрана нашей батареи изготовлена из обычного углеводородного полимера, который получается, как и другие подобные полимеры, из нефти».

«Все компоненты и технологии, используемые в конструкции нашей батареи уже существуют и присутствуют на рынке» — пишут исследователи, — «Мы сейчас работаем с несколькими партнерами с целью создания реальной батареи, которую можно будет использовать в практических целях. Для этого мы в течение нескольких следующих месяцев создадим один или два опытных образца, на которых будет произведена доработка всех технологий до необходимого уровня».

 

В Украине представили черепицу, которая способна производить электроэнергию

Торговое представительство в Украине концерна TEGOLA Canadese, которое занимается производством стройматериалов, недавно представило довольно интересную альтернативу солнечным панелям, которые устанавливают на крышах домов. Представители компании советуют использовать битумную фотогальваническую черепицу собственного производства, которая способна производить электроэнергию

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В Украине строят уникальный завод по производству органических солнечных батарей

В Александрии Кировоградской области построят завод по изготовлению органических солнечных батарей и солнечную электростанцию.

Как отмечает один из инициаторов и разработчиков проекта, директор департамента инновационных внедрений ООО «ПромКонверсия», руководитель секции НТТ Малой Академии Наук Сергей Каминский, оба объекта будет возводить созданное александрийскими инвесторами предприятие «Чистые энергетические технологии», сообщает ot.kr.ua

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Немецкие ученые получили устойчивую термоядерную реакцию, которая может привести к революции в энергетике

Если результаты исследователей Института плазменной физики Макса Планка получится повторить, человечество получит практически неиссякаемый источник чистой энергии ядерного синтеза.

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